Senin, September 20, 2010
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Present Tense
Dalam bahasa Inggris Present Tense atau Simple Present Tense digunakan untuk menyatakan peristiwa atau kejadian, kegiatan, aktivitas dan sebagainya yang terjadi saat ini. Present Tense juga digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu Fakta, atau sesuatu yang tejadi berulang-ulang dimasa KINI. Ingat, PRESENT artinya adalah kini, sekarang.

Rumusnya:
Positif: S + V1 (s/es)
Negatif: S + DO/DOES + NOT + V1
Tanya: DO/DOES + S + V1
Contoh Kalimat Positif:
I drink coffee
She drinks coffe
We drink coffee
Ya, sengaja pelajaran Tense bahasa inggris ini dibuat simple saja agar cepat faham. Anda perlu mengembangkannya sendiri misalnya dengan membuat 100 contoh sendiri. Pasti Anda perlu kamus juga, karena belajar tenses lalu mentok dengan suatu kata kerja maka biasanya tidak jadi, hehe..
Cara Membaca Rumus:
S artinya Subject, V1 artinya Verb1 atau kata kerja bentuk pertama. Garis miring artinya ya Atau dong!.
Kapan pakai S atau ES dan kapan tidak?
Kalau Subjectnya He, She, It, John, Mufli, Ellen atau Orang ketiga TUNGGAL maka kata kerjanya tambah S atau ES. Tidak sembarang tambah S atau ES juga nih, ada daftarnya. Daftarnya itu bayak sekali, mustahal saya tulis disini, cape dehh nulisnya, Anda musti beli buku Grammar juga. Belajar bahasa Inggris perlu modal, hehe..
Di atas tadi ada istilah Orang Ketiga Tunggal, maksudnya gini: Orang ketiga adalah orang yang kita bicarakan, yang kita omongin. Sedangkan orang pertama ya yang bicara. Orang kedua lawan bicara. Tunggal ya satu. Jadi orang ketiga tunggal adalah orang yang kita bicarakan dan satu saja dia itu. Misalnya kita berdua ngomongin John Scoping. Yang ngomong saya, yang dengar Anda, yang dibicarakan John Scoping (orang ketiga tunggal). Faham ya?
John Scoping belajar Tenses.
John Scoping learnS english.
Tidak bisa LearnES, mengapa? ya memang begitu!. Tetapi yang ini malah tambah ES:
John Scoping goES to School (tambah ES).
Kalimat Negatif Present Tense
Bentuk Negatif, artinya menyatakan TIDAK. Maka sesuai rumus Present Tense, setelah SUBJECT ditambah DO atau DOES, baru NOT, lalu tambah kata kerja bentuk pertama tanpa S atau ES lagi. S atau ES nya dimana? Sudah di doES tadi.
Untuk I, WE, YOU, THEY tambah DO
Untuk SHE, HE, IT, Mufli, Ellen tambah DOES
I do not drink coffee.
She does not drink coffee.
John Scoping does not learn english.
Coba perhatikan She does not drink coffee. Drink nya tidak pake S lagi, pindah ke doES. Biasakan saja, Present Simple Tense ini sepertinya rumit tetapi kalau faham maka enak banget. Ulangi saja baca dari atas 10 kali lagi, biar meresap benar, hehe.. Bikin juga 10 contoh Anda sendiri dengan kata kerja yang berbeda. Yes, belajar bahasa Inggris tak boleh manja, harus aktif, baru akan bisa.
Kalimat Tanya Present Tense
Kalimat tanya untuk Present Tense sesuai rumus diatas, atau saya tulis lagi seperti ini:
Tanya: DO/DOES + S + V1
Sama saja pasangannya. Untuk I, WE, YOU, THEY gunakan DO. Untuk SHE, HE, IT, Mufli, Ellen gunakan DOES. Contohnya begini:
Kalimat positifnya: I drink coffee
Kalimat tanya menjadi: DO you drink cofee?
Kalimat positif: She drinks coffe
Kalimat tanya: DOES She drink coffee?
Kalimat tanya seperti diatas disebut juga YES/NO Question. Karena jawabannya memang Yes atau No. Do You drink coffee? “Yes I do” jawabnya. Atau bisa bisa dijawab dengan lengkap: “Yes, I do drink coffee”. Dihilangkan DO nya juga boleh, menjadi kalimat positif lagi: “Yes I drink coffee”.
Ya, memang benar kalau Present Tense ini lebih rumit dibandingkan dengan Present Continuous Tense karena tiba-tiba kok pake DO, eh untuk orang ketiga tunggal pakai DOES segala, hehe.. Kalau dalam Present Continuous Tense nanti tinggal dibalik doang.
Ngapain sih belajar ginian? Ya agar bahasa inggris Anda lebih terstruktur dan punya landasan kuat untuk belajar lebih lanjut nanti. Misalnya Anda perlu menulis untuk blog Anda dalam bahasa Inggris untuk menjalankan bisnis periklanan periklanan Adsense, malu dong kalau tensesnya kacau kan? Belum tau apa itu Google Adsense? Wah wah.. hehe.. Nanti buka di sini ya: Pengantar Belajar Google Adsense.
Ok deh, itu tadi sedikit selingan. By the way bus way langganan Artikel saya dong seputar Internet Marketing dan Bisnis Online ya. Caranya ada di milinglist Yahoo: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/artikelblog. Loh kok bisnis lagi? haha.. enak tau bisnis internet itu, menulis-menulis doang dapat duit, seperti saya bikin blog Tenses Bahasa Inggris ini, dapat teman banyak. Banyak teman kan banyak rejeki, ya toh? ya kan?. Ok ok, kita lanjutkan pelajaran.
Nah, kalau tadi kan Kalimat Tanya Present Tense yang jawabannya Yes atau No doang. Gimana kalau pertanyaan yang jawabannya panjang atau yang jawabannya kalimat? Yah, tinggal tambahkan saja When, Where, Why, Who, What, dsb di depannya. Contohnya begini:
-When Do you drink coffee?
Contoh jawaban: I drink coffee everyday.
-What does she drink?
She drinks coffee la yau!
Gampang kan? Ya kan? hehe.. Kalau Anda sering praktekkan dalam bahasa inggris sehari-hari maka tentu saja akan terasa mudah. Silahkan berkreasi dengan kalimat-kalimat Anda dalam Present Tense ya.
Ok, begitu dulu pelajaran Present Tensenya. Kalau ada pertanyaan tentang Present Tense silahkan masukkan lewat komentar di bawah ini. Boleh juga kalau Anda ingin menambahkan, caranya silahkan masukkan di komentar juga. Kalau itu sangat keren dan merupakan tambahan pelajaran maka bisa jadi posting ini saya edit lalu tulisan anda dikomentar tersebut saya pindahkan ke bagian content. Anda yang membaca pertanyaan orang lain dan rasanya rela untuk menjawab, silahkan juga loh ya. Jangan pelit ilmu. Liat tu saya udah ngetik panjang untuk berbagi dengan Anda, cie.. Oh ya by the way bus way lagi, jangan lupa jadi teman saya di facebook ya, alamat facebook saya disini: http://mufli.net/fb



Simple Present Tense
POLA KALIMAT:
•Bentuk Positif (+):
Kalimat Verbal : S + Verb1 + O
Kalimat Nominal : S + be (am, are, is) + C
•Bentuk Negatif (-):
Kalimat Verbal : S + Do/Does + not + V1 +O
Kalimat Nominal : S + be (am, are, is) + not + C
•Bentuk Introgratif / Pertanyaan (?):
Kalimat Verbal : Do/Does + S + V1 +O ?
Kalimat Nominal : be (am, are, is) + S + C ?
1. Kaliamat Nominal
Adalah kalimat yang predikatnya bukan kata kerja. Dengan demikian kalimat tersebut tidak memerlukan kata kerja tetapi menggunakan ‘To Be’
a. SUBJECT bisa berupa :
•Perseonal Pronoun (kata ganti orang), yaaitu:
I, You, We, They, He, She, It
•Noun (kata benda)
b. COMPLEMENT (Pelengkap) dapat berupa:
•Adjective (kata sifat)
•Noun (kata benda)
•Adverb (kata keterangan)
c. TO BE (kata kerja bantu) dapat berupa:
•Am digunakan untuk subyek ‘I’
•Are digunakan untuk subyek ‘You, We, dan They’
•Is digunakan untuk subyek ‘He, She, It’
2. Kalimat Verbal
Adalah kalimat yang predikatnya berupa kata kerja.
Kalimat Positif (+) :
o Apabila subyeknya adalah satu dari They, we, I, You atau kata benda jamak maka kata kerjanya adalah kata kerja bentuk pertama (Verb1).
o Apabila subyeknya salah satu dari He, She, It atau orang ketiga tunggal maka kata kerjanya adalah kata kerja pertama ditambah s/es (Verb1 + s/es)
Aturan penambahan s/es pada kata kerja bentuk pertama adalah sebagai berikut:
•Kata kerja bentuk pertama ditambah dengan es apabila kata kerja tersebut berakhiran dengan salah satu huruf ch, o, sh, ss, x, dan y yang didahului dengan konsonan
Contoh :
- Catches - Kisses
- Watches - Misses
- Does - Fixes
- Goes - Mixes
- Washes - Studies
- Brushes - Cries
- Destrooys - Plays
Perhatikan pada kata Destroys dan Plays hanya ditambah dengan akhiran s karena di depan huruf Y adalah huruf vokal, bukan konsonan.
•Selain kata kerja yang berakhiran dengan huruf-huruf tersebut diatas, maka kata kerja pertama hanya ditambah s.
Contoh :
-Gives - Decides
-Plans – Sends

PENGGUNAAN SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
a. Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kebiasaan atau kegiatan kegiatan yang dilakukan secara berulang-ulang.
Untuk tujuan ini sering digunakan kata keterangan seperti :
Always : selalu
Generally : umumnya
Sometimes : kadang - kandang
Never : tidak pernah
As a rule : biasanya
Everyday : setiap hari
Usually : biasanya
Often : sering
Seldom : jarang
Rearly : jarang
Frequently : sering
Habitually : biasanya
Occasionally : kadang- kadang
Never : Tidak pernah
From time to time : Dari waktu ke waktu
Every day/ week/ montt/ year
Once a week/ month/ year
Contoh :
1. Mother is always busy every morning
2. Father seldom comes home before five o’clock
3. The students have english lesson every Monday
4. We go to the movie twice a month
5. He habitually get up at five thirty
b. Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kebenaran umum ( general truth).
Yang imaksud kebenaran umum adalah segala sesuatu yang benar atau sesuai dengan kenyataan yang ada di masa sekarang, masa lampau dan mungkin di masa yang akan datang. Biasanya hal ini berkaitan dengan fakta-fakta alamiah.
Contoh :
1. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west
2. The moon moves round the earth in thirty days
3. The moon and stars are in the sky
4. Summer comes after spring
5. Snow covers the mountain in winter
c. Digunakan untuk menunjukkan kecakapan, kemampuan atau sifat yang dimiliki seseorang.
Contoh:
1. He speaks English fluently.
2. Mrs. Lina is friendly
d. Digunakan untuk mengutip suatu berita, pengumuman, surat, buku, ataupun surat kabar.
Kata kerja yang sering dipakai untuk menyatakan hal ini adalah say, advise, warn
Contoh:
1. In her letter she says, “ My brother studies every day”
2. The notice warns us not to touch the wire
e. Digunakan untuk menyatakan kegiatan rutin atau kebiasaan sehari-hari
Contoh:
1. I eat every day
2. Agus goes to school every morning
f. Digunakan untuk menyatakan atau menunjukan suatu perbuatan yang direncanakan akan segera dilakukan dalam waktu dekat.
Contoh :
1. The meeting begins at 10 0├žlock
2. My Brother by the time 5.50 train this afternoon
g. Digunakan dalam narasi drama untuk menggambarkan jalannya urutan cerita dan juga digunakan oleh komentator radio atau TV dala acara olah raga
Contoh :
Scholes takes the ball from Lampard. He brings the ball to the middle and then gives it to Ronaldo who is standing free not far from penalty area.
h. Digunakan untuk menggantikan Present Continuous Tense pada beberapa kata yang tidak lazim dipakai dalam Present Continuous Tense, seperti love, like, believe dsb. (Lihat pada pembahasan Present Continuous Tense)
Contoh :
I believe You (correct)
I believing You (wrong)
He loves her (corret)
He is loving her (wrong)
i. Digunakan dalam anak kalimat (if clause) pada kalimat pengandaian ( conditional sentense) type 1, sedangkan induk kalimat (main clause) berbentuk Present Future Tense.
Contoh
She will not come here if you do not invite her.
If it rains tonaight, we will not come to the meeting
j. Digunakan dalam klausa waktu apabila merupakan suatu hal yang rutin terjadi atau apabila induk kalimatnya berbentuk Present Future Tense
Contoh:
We will go home when it stops raining.









(Bentuk Waktu)

1. Present Tense (Waktu Sekarang)
a. Simple Present Tense (Waktu Sekarang Sederhana)
A. Subject + To Be (am / are / is) + …
B. Subject + Verb + …

Rumus :
Contoh kalimat :
(+) She is a new people here.
(+) He plays football every morning
(-) She isn’t a new people here.
(-) He not playing football every morning.
(?) Is she a new people here?
(?) How playing football every morning?
b. Present Continuous Tense (Waktu Berlangsung Sekarang)
Menerangkan suatu perbuatan yabg sedang berlangsungpada waktu sekarang.
Subject + To Be (am / is / are) +Verb I + ING …

Rumus :
Contoh dalam kalimat :
(+) They are studying English now.
(+) He is playing badminton now
(-) They aren’t studying English now.
(-) He isn’t playing badminton now.
(?) Is he playing badminton now.
(?) Is she going to market now?
c. Present Perfect Tense (Waktu Sempurna Sekarang)
Subject + Have / Has +Verb II (Ing) + …
Rumus :
Contoh :
(+) I have gone.
(+) They have done
(-) I haven’t gone.
(-)They haven’t done.
(?) Have I gone ?
(?) Have they done ?
d. Present Perfect Continuous Tense (Waktu Berlangsung Sempurna Sekarang)
Subject + Have / Has +Verb II (Ing) + …
Rumus :
Contoh :
(+) She has been going to Malang since evening.
(+) We have been riding a horse for three days
(-) She hasn’t been going to Malang since evening.
(-) We haven’t been riding a horse for three days.
(?) Has she been going to Malang ?
(?) Have He been riding a horse for three days ?

2. Past Tense (Waktu Lampau)
a. Simple Past Tense (Waktu Lampau Sederhana)
A. Subject + To Be (was / were) + …
B. Subject + Verb II + …
Rumus :
Contoh :
(+) I saw a good film last night
(+) He came here last month
(-) I saw not a good film last night
(-) He came not last month
(?) Saw I a good film last night
(?) Came He here last month
Subject + To Be (was / were) + Verb I (Ing) +
b. Past Continuous Tense (Waktu Berlangsung Lampau)
Rumus :
Contoh :
(+) He was watching television all afternoon last week
(+) They were talking about sport when I met him
(-) He wasn’t watching television all afternoon last week
(-) They weren’t talking about sport when I met him
(?) Was He watching television all afternoon last week
(?) Were they talking about sport when I met him
c. Past Perfect Tense (Waktu Sempurna Lampau)
A. Subject + Had + Been + …
B. Subject + Had + Verb III + …
Rumus :
Contoh :
(+) When my brother arrived , I had painted my motor cycle
(+) The ship had left before I arrived
(-) When my brother arrived , I hadn’t painted my motor cycle
(-) The ship hadn’t left before I arrived
(?) Had I my motor cycle , when my brother arrived ?
(?) Had the ship left before I arrived?

d. Past Perfect Continuous Tense (Waktu Berlangsung Sempurna Lampau)
Subject + Had + Been + Verb I (Ing) + …

Rumus :
Contoh :
(+) They had been living there for two month
(+) When they washed my drees , your father had been playing badminton
(-) They hadn’t been living there for two month
(-) When they washed my dress , your father hadn’t been playing badminton
(?) Had they been living there for two month?
(?) When they washed my dress , had your father been playing badminton ?
3. Future Tense (Akan Datang)
a. Simple Future Tense (Waktu Akan Datang Sederhana)
A. Subject Shall / Will + Be + …
B. Subject + Shall / Will + Verb + …

Rumus :
Contoh :
(+) I will visit to yogyakarta tomorrow.
(+) he will met girl friend by seven o’clock
(?) Will he go to America next month?
(+) President shall at Nederland the day after tomorrow.
(-) President shall not at Nederland the day after tomorrow.
(?) Shall President at Nederland the day after tomorrow?
b. Future Continuous Tense (Waktu Berlangsung Akan Datang)
Subject + Shall / Will + Be + Verb (Ing) + …
Rumus :
Contoh :
(+) I will be writing a comic.
(+) I will be studying tomorrow night.
(-) I will not writing a comic.
(-) I will not be studying tomorrow night.
(?) Will I be writing a comic ?
(?) Will I be studying tomorrow night ?
c. Future Perfect Tense (Waktu Sempurna Akan Datang)
A. Subject + Shall / Will + Have + Been + …
B. Subject + Shall / Will + Have + Verb II + …
Rumus :
Contoh :
(+) Bily will have done his work by the end of this week.
(+) By next week I shall have read this book.
(-) Bily will haven’t done his work by the end of this week.
(-) By next week I shall haven’t read this book.
(?) Will Billy have done his work by the end of this week ?
(?) Shall I have read this book by next week ?
d. Future Perfect Continuous Tense (Waktu Berlangsung Sempurna Akan Datang)
Subject + Shall / Will + Have + Been + Verb (Ing) + …

Rumus :
Contoh :
(+) I will have been reading a news paper.
(+) He will have been listening music.
(-) I will haven’t been reading a news paper.
(-) He will haven’t listening a music.
(?) Will I have been riding a news paper ?
(?) Will He have listening a music ?
4. Past Future Tense (Akan Datang Di Waktu Lampau)
a. Past Future Tense (Waktu Akan Datang Di Waktu Lampau)
C. Subject + Should / Would + Have + Been + …
D. Subject + Should / Would + Have + Verb III + …
Rumus :
Contoh :
(+) He would come if you invited him.
(+) They would buy a home the previous day.
(-) He wouldn’t come if invited him.
(-) They wouldn’t buy a home the previous day.
(?) Would He come if invited him ?
(?) Would they buy a home the previous day ?
b. Past Future Continuous Tense (Waktu Akan Sedang Terjadi Diwaktu Lampau)
Subject + Shoul / Would + Be : Verb (Ing) + …
Rumus :
Contoh :
(+) I should be swimming at this time the following day.
(+) I shall be sliping at 10 o’clock tomorrow.
(-) I shouldn’t be swimming at this time the following day.
(-) I shalln’t be sleeping at 10 o’clock tomorrow.
(?) Shall I be swimming at this time the following day ?
(?) Shall I be sleeping at10 o’clock tomorrow ?
c. Past Future Perfect Tense (Waktu Akan Sudah Selesai Di Waktu Lampau)
E. Subject + Should / Would + Have + Been + …
F. Subject + Should / Would + Have + Verb III + …
Rumus :
Contoh :
(+) He would have graduated if he had studies hard.
(+) Nonok will have studied moth by the end of this week.
(-) He wouldn’t have gone if he had met his darling
(-) Nonok will have not studied month by the end of this week
(?) Would He have gone if he had met his darling ?
(?) Will Nonok have studied month by the end of this week ?
d. Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense
(Waktu Yang Sudah Sedang Berlangsung Pada Waktu Lampau)
Subject + Should / Would + Have + Been + Verb (Ing) + …
Rumus :
Contoh :
Rianawati would have been speaking English for two years
(+) Mrs. Anisa Munif would have been walking here for seventeen years
(+) Rianawati would have been speaking English for two years
(-) Mrs. Anisa Munif wouldn’t have been walking here for seventeen year
(-) Rianawati wouldn’t have been speaking English for two years
(?) Would Mrs. Anisa Munif have been walking here for seventeen years?
(?) Would Rianawati have been speaking English for two years?
In English, there are two verb forms which are commonly called "past tense", the so-called simple past, sometimes misleadingly called the preterite, which is a true tense, and the present perfect, which is generally considered an aspect rather than a tense.[1][2] These combine with other aspects including the progressive (continuous) aspect to create several additional forms:
Simple past is formed for regular verbs by adding -d or – ed to the root of a word. Examples: He walked to the store, or They danced all night.. A negation is produced by adding did not and the verb in its infinitive form. Example: He did not walk to the store. Question sentences are started with did as in Did he walk to the store?
Simple past is used for describing acts that have already been concluded and whose exact time of occurrence is known. Furthermore, simple past is used for retelling successive events. That is why it is commonly used in storytelling.
Past progressive is formed by using the adequate form of to be and the verb’s present participle: He was going to church. By inserting not before the main verb a negation is achieved. Example: He was not going to church. A question is formed by prefixing the adequate form of to be as in Was he going?.
Past progressive is used for describing events that were in the process of occurring when a new event happened. The already occurring event is presented in past progressive, the new one in simple past. Example: We were sitting in the garden when the thunderstorm started. Use is similar to other languages' imperfect.
Present perfect is formed by combining have/has with the main verb’s past participle form: I have arrived. A negation is produced by inserting not after have/has: I have not arrived. Questions in present perfect are formulated by starting a sentence with have/has: Has she arrived?
Present perfect is used for describing a past action’s effect on the present: He has arrived. Now he is here. This holds true for events that have just been concluded as well as for events that have not yet occurred.
Present perfect progressive is formed by prefixing have/has before the grammatical participle been and the verb’s present participial form: We have been waiting. A negation is expressed by including not between have/has and been: They have not been eating. As with present perfect simple, for forming a question, have/has is put at the beginning of a sentence: Have they been eating?
Present perfect progressive is used for describing an event that has been going on until the present and may be continued in the future. It also puts emphasis on how an event has occurred. Very often since and for mark the use of present perfect progressive: I have been waiting for five hours / I have been waiting since three o’clock.
Furthermore, there is another version of past tense possible: past perfect, similar to other languages' pluperfect.
Past perfect is formed by combining the simple past form of to have with the past participle form of the main verb: We had shouted. A negation is achieved by including not after had: You had not spoken. Questions in past perfect always start with had: Had he laughed?
Past perfect is used for describing secluded events that have occurred before something else followed. The event that is closer to the present is given in simple past tense: After we had visited our relatives in New York, we flew back to Toronto.
Past perfect progressive is formed by had, the grammatical particle been and the present participle of the main verb: You had been waiting. For negation, not is included before been: I had not been waiting. A question sentence is formed by starting with had: Had she been waiting?
If emphasis is put on the duration of a concluded action of the past, since and for are signal words for past perfect progressive: We had been waiting at the airport since the 9 P.M. flight. / They had been waiting for three hours now.

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